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Taxonomy

Full name: Hebeloma cavipes Huijsman, Persoonia 2 (1): 97 (1961)
Genus: Hebeloma
Section: Denudata
Subsection: Clepsydroida

Types: FRANCE: Var, Nans-les-Pins (approx. 43.36°N, 5.78°E, alt. approx. 405 m a.s.l.) under Cistus sp., 7 Oct. 1960, H.S.C. Huijsman (Holotype. herbarium acc. no. L 960.110-524, HJB1000010).

Heterotypic synonyms:
  • Hebeloma litoreum Quadr., Mycotaxon 49: 287 (1993)
  • Hebeloma vejlense Vesterh., Fungi N. Eur. 3. 3: 98 (2005)

Homotypic synonyms:
  • Hebelomatis cavipes (Huijsman) Locq., Flore Mycologique Vol III - Text. Cortinariales A: 146 (1979) ["1977"]

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEtymology
    From cavum– hole or cavity and pes– foot to emphasise the hollow stipe.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upOriginal diagnosis
    Pileus 20–40 mm, plano-convexus, sordide alutaceus. Velum abest. Stipes 20–40 x 4–7 mm, subcylindricus, percavus, ad apicem cavi flocco aculeato pendent praeditus, apice farinoso, duabus partibus inferioribus subglabricentibus, albus. Caro alba; odore saporeque subraphanoidei. Sporae 10–12.5 x 5.7–7 μm, amygdaliformes, verruculosae, apice satis acuto, papillato. Cheilocystidia numerosa, 28–60 x 12.5 x 3.5–6 μm, sublageniformes, collo breve, apice subclavato. Numerosus in Cisteto.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEnglish translation
    Pileus 20–40 mm, plano-convex, sordid yellow. Velum absent. Stipe 20–40 × 4–7 mm, subcylindrical, hollow, at apex of cavity with a pointed pending flock, farinose at apex, in lower part glabrescent, white. Context white. Smell and taste subraphanoid. Spores 10–12.5 × 5.7–7 μm, amygdaloid, verruculose, papillate with rather acute apex. Cheilocystidia numerous, 28–60 × 12.5 × 3.5–6 μm, sublageniform, with short neck and subclavate apex. Abundant in association with Cistus.

Description

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upThresholds
Description of Hebeloma cavipes based on 380 collections
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description
    Pileus: (10) 19–51 (74) mm diameter; shape often convex, occasionally broadly umbonate, rarely umbonate, strongly umbonate, umbilicate, none or applanate; characters rarely spotting; margin characters usually smooth, rarely serrate, involute, crenulate, sulcate, scalloped or wavy; viscosity tacky when moist; colour variation often two color, occasionally unicolour; colour at centre occasionally yellowish brown, rarely dark pinkish buff, clay-buff, ochraceous, cream, cinnamon, brick, umber, dark brick, fawn, pinkish buff, clay-red, pale cream, brownish olive, dark fawn, dark greyish buff, honey, clay-pink, greyish brown, warm buff or sepia.

    Lamellae: attachment usually emarginate, rarely adnate or decurrent tooth; maximum depth 2–7 mm; number of complete lamellae 36–96; presence of tears often absent, occasionally visible with naked eye or visible with x10 lens; white fimbriate edge often present, occasionally weak, rarely very strong or absent.

    Cortina presence: no.

    Stipe: (6) 21–60 (81) x (2) 3–9 (16) {median} x (2) 3–11 (16) {basal} mm; stipe Q 0.9–18.0; base shape often cylindrical, occasionally clavate, rarely tapering, bulbous or subbulbous; floccosity occasionally pruinose, floccose, velute or pruinose at apex, rarely fibrillose, floccose at apex, weakly floccose or fibrous; rooting usually no, rarely weak or yes; thick rhizoids at base usually absent, rarely present;

    Context: Texture firm; stipe interior often stuffed, occasionally hollow, rarely superior wick or basal wick; stipe flesh discolouring often no, occasionally yes or weak; slenderness measure 0.5–35.3; smell occasionally raphanoid, odourless or weakly raphanoid, rarely strongly raphanoid, cocoa, fruit, soap or sweet; taste occasionally weakly bitter, mild or raphanoid, rarely bitter, hot, weakly raphanoid or strongly raphanoid where recorded.

    Spore deposit colour: occasionally brownish olive or umber, rarely yellowish brown or clay-buff.

    Exsiccata characters: rarely pale, fragile, pileus blackening, dark, shiny or stipe blackening.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description
    Spores: shape usually amygdaloid, occasionally fusoid or limoniform, rarely navicular or lacrymoid; colour in microscope occasionally yellow brown, brown or yellow, rarely brown yellow, grey yellow, brown pale or yellow pale; guttules often yes, occasionally no, rarely weak. papilla usually yes, occasionally weak, rarely no; Spore Code: O3; (P0) P1 P2; D2 D3.

    Basidia: (23) 24–37 (39) x 6–10 (11) μm; ave. Q 2.9–4.5; spore arrangement 4 spored;

    Cheilocystidia: main shape usually clavate-lageniform or clavate-ventricose, occasionally clavate-stipitate or gently clavate, rarely lageniform, ventricose, cylindrical, clavate, capitate-stipitate, capitate, filiform or spathulate-stipitate; special features observed occasionally median thickening, septa or geniculate, rarely apical thickening, many collapsed in exsiccata, clamped septa, grotesque, irregular, rostrate, short, sparse or wavy; cheilocystidia ratios: A/M = 1.40–2.07; A/B = 0.85–1.42; B/M = 1.33–1.92.

    Pleurocystidia: usually none seen, rarely seen.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) up to 300 μm; ixocutis hyphae width up to 7 μm; ixocutis hyphae encrustation often yes, occasionally no; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis often thickly sausage-shaped, occasionally ellipsoid, isodiametric, polygonal or thinly sausage-shaped, rarely cylindrical or oblong up to 20 μm wide.

    Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia but larger, up to 120 μm.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upSpore measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCheilocystidia measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upHabitat and distribution
    Where only one possible associate was recorded, the most commonly recorded associate was Quercus (25.7%) but Betula (15.8%), Cistus (12.9%), Pinus (11.4%), Eucalyptus (7.9%), Populus (6.4%), Tilia (4.0%), Helianthemum (3.0%), Castanea (3.0%), Salix (2.5%), Fagus (2.0%) and Picea (1.5%) were also recorded. In these cases the most commonly recorded families were Fagaceae (32.4%), Betulaceae (16.2%), Cistaceae (15.2%), Pinaceae (14.8%), Salicaceae (9.1%) and Myrtaceae (7.6%). We have additional records where Pseudotsuga (2.7%), Arbutus (2.7%), Larix (1.2%) and Carpinus (1.2%) were recorded as possible associates, but in these cases a number of possible associates were mentioned. Overall the most commonly recorded families are Fagaceae (38.4%), Pinaceae (34.5%), Betulaceae (32.4%), Cistaceae (15.2%) and Salicaceae (12.5%) The growth habit of our collections was often scattered, occasionally solitary or gregarious and rarely caespitose or connate.

    According to our current collections, the species is predominantly found in Europe (83.7%) but also found in Northern America (11.4%), Australasia (3.8%) and Temperate Asia (1.1%). On these continents, collections has been found in the WWF biomes The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. temperate broadleaf & mixed forests (58.0%), mediterranean forests, woodlands & scrub (23.3%) and temperate conifer forests (10.0%), specifically including the ecoregions: Central European mixed forests (21.7%). From collector information, it appears collections have been found in the 1.4 Forest – Temperate (57.9%) and 14.5 Urban Areas (17.6%) IUCN habitats We map from the collector's description of the habitat to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s definition using a standardised set of rules. Please see this page for a full list of IUCN habitats..

    Within Europe we have records from the Centre (Poland, Germany, Belgium and Netherlands), the Southwest (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Channel Islands), the North (England, Denmark, Norway and Finland), the Southeast (Italy and North Macedonia) and Eastern Europe (Lithuania and Estonia). Specimens have been collected from 39.0°N to 63.0°N.

    Within Northern America we have records from Western Canada (British Columbia), Northwestern U.S.A. (Washington and Oregon), Southwestern U.S.A. (California), Northeastern U.S.A. (Ohio and New York), South-central U.S.A. (Texas), North-central U.S.A. (Minnesota) and Subarctic America (Northwest Territories).

    Within Australasia we have records from New Zealand (New Zealand) and Australia (Victoria, Western Australia and New South Wales).

    Within Temperate Asia we have records from Western Asia (Cyprus), Caucasus (Karachay-Balkar) and Eastern Asia (Japan).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMolecular results
    Hebeloma cavipes is molecularly very similar to H. vaccinum. RPB2 appears to separate H. cavipes and H. vaccinum, but in the single locus result of RPB2 as in the five-locus result and six-locus result, H. cavipes is unsupported by bootstrap ≥ 85%, but monophyletic with respect to H. vaccinum, which is paraphyletic, and H. ammophilum (singleton). There are too few results for H. cavipes and H. vaccinum for Tef1a to be sure yet, but the locus is another contender for supporting H. cavipes and H. vaccinum as independent taxa. Hebeloma cavipes and H. vaccinum together are paraphyletic with respect to different (bootstrap supported) taxa in different single locus results. However, when it comes to molecular identification based on ITS, H. cavipes cannot be securely separated from H. vaccinum, but from all other species. The synonymization of H. vejlense and H. litoreum with H. cavipes is supported by RPB2 and other loci from type collections (Eberhardt et al. 2016).
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCommentary
    Given the shape of its cheilocystidia, Hebeloma cavipes clearly belongs to H. sect. Denudata. This species most likely corresponds to ICG10 of Aanen & Kuyper (1999). The spores, at most P2, put it within either H. subsects. Hiemalia or Clepsydroida. The spores, with many O3, D2 or D3 and P2 imply it can only be from H. subsect. Clepsydroida. Within this subsection, the variability of the dextrinoidity of the spores means that in our key we key it out twice, as strongly dextrinoid and as weakly but distinctly dextrinoid. The average spore width (< 6.5 μm), the spore length (> 11 μm) and the distinctly brown colours, at least at the centre of the pileus, distinguish this taxon from other members of this subsection. It should be noted that we have come across some collections of this species that have a rather paler pileus than normal. This can occur when the pileus colour is ‘washed out’ by rain. It also seems to occur to some collections found growing with Cistus, which did cause Bruchet to believe that such collections should be ascribed to Hebeloma album Peck and we believe that Hebeloma album, as interpreted by Bruchet (1970) and other European authors, is identical with H. cavipes. With 239 confirmed European collections of H. cavipes on our database this represents about 7.5% of all our collections and implies that this is one of the most common Hebeloma spp. of Europe, despite having been seldom recorded under this name.
Geographic distribution
Phenology
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upAdditional cited collections

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