Hebeloma lactariolensHebeloma lactariolens (Photo: E. Horak)


Full name: Hebeloma lactariolens (Clémençon & Hongo) B.J. Rees & Orlovich ., Mycologia 105 (4): 1055 (2013)
Genus: Hebeloma
Section: Porphyrospora

Alnicola lactariolens Clémençon & Hongo, Mycoscience 35 (1): 25 (1994)

Types: JAPAN: Kansai, Tomikawa, Otsu-shi, Shiga-ken (approx. 34.9001°N, 135.9489°E, alt. approx. 180 m a.s.l.) on soil in woodland under Pinus sp. and Quercus sp., 15 Aug. 1988, T. Hongo, H. Clémençon (HC-88/95) (Holotype. herbarium acc. no. TNS 237670, HJB1000383; Isotype. held at herbarium LAU, HJB1000560).

Heterotypic synonyms:

  • Psathyrella verrucispora Corner, Gardens Bulletin Singapore 45 (2): 344 (1994) ["1993"]
  • Lacrymaria verrucispora Voto, Rivista Micologica Romana, Bolletino dell'Associazione Micologica Ecologica Romana 107: 95 (2019)
  • Lacrymaria verrucispora S.M.L. Lee & Voto, Rivista Micologica Romana, Boll. AMER 110 (2): 90 (2020)

Homotypic synonyms:

  • Anamika lactariolens (Clémençon & Hongo) Matheny ., Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 35: 1262 (2005)

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEtymology
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upOriginal diagnosis
    Pileo 13-40 mm lato, hemisphasrico dein late convexo, elastico-cartilagineo, hygrophano, rubro-brunneo, margine pallide argillaceo, levi in juvenilibus dein ruguloso-venoso. Lamellis stipatis, adnexis, carneo-brunneis, acie albo-fimbriatis. Stipite usque ad 35 x 4 mm, aequali vel deorsum subincrassato, haud radicante, apicem versus stramineo floccoso-pruinosoque, basin versus pallide ochraceo-brunneo appresse fibrillosoque, e farcto fistuloso; rhizomorphis albis praesentibus, Velo fibrilloso, albo, in juvenilibus cortiniformi. Odore in mentem Lactarium porninsem revocante; sapore subamaro. Basidiosporis in massa purpureo-brunneis, amygdaliformibus, 8.0-10.5 x 5.4-6.9 μm, verruculosis. Basidiis 21-29x 7-8 μm, tetrasporis. Cheilocystidiis numerosissimis, 35-45 x 6-10 μm, tenui-tunicatis, hyalinis, attenuais vel cylindratis, summis rotundatis, obtusis. Pleurocystidiis sparsis, 35-45 x 7-12 μm, tenui-tunicatis, hyalinis, deorsum ventricosis, gracillimo rostro 2-3 μm. Hyphis fibulatis. Ad terram in silva mixta (Quercus et Pinus).
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEnglish translation
    Pileus 13-40 mm broad, hemispherical then broadly convex, elastic-cartilaginous, hygrophanous, red-brown, pale argillaceous on the margin, smooth when young then wrinkled-venose, Lamellae crowded, adnexed, pinkish-brown, white and fimbriate on the edge. Stipe up to 35 x 4 mm, equal or slightly enlarged downwards, not rooting, straw yellow and floccose-pruinose towards the apex, pale ochraceous-brown and appressedly fibrillose towards the base, stuffed to fistulose; white rhizomorphs present. Veil fibrillose, white, cortinate when young. Smell calling to mind Lactarius porninsis; taste slightly bitter. Basidiospores purplish-brown in mass, amygadiform, 8.0-10.5 x 5.4-6.9 μm, roughened. Basidia 21-29 x 7-8 μm, four-spored. Cheilocystidia very numerous, 35-45 x 6-10 μm, thin-walled, hyaline, tapered or cylindraceous, rounded at the apex, obtuse. Pleurocystidia sparse, 35-45 x 7-12 μm, thin-walled, hyaline, ventricose downwards, with a very thin neck 2-3 μm. Hyphae clamped. On the ground in mixed wood (Quercus and Pinus).


  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upThresholds
Description of Hebeloma lactariolens based on 7 collections
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description
    Pileus: (13) 27–48 (65) mm diameter; shape convex; characters often hygrophanous, remains of universal veil or rugulose; margin characters sulcate; viscosity tacky when moist; colour variation two color; colour at centre orange-brown.

    Lamellae: attachment often adnexed, occasionally adnate or emarginate; maximum depth up to 4 mm; number of complete lamellae 30–36; presence of tears Not recorded; white fimbriate edge occasionally absent, weak or very strong.

    Cortina presence: variable.

    Stipe: (20) 34–132 (165) x 3–5 (7) {median} x 4–6 (9) {basal} mm; stipe Q 6.7–32.0; base shape often cylindrical, occasionally bulbous; floccosity pruinose at apex, often fibrillose or floccose at apex; rooting yes; thick rhizoids at base variable;

    Context: Texture firm; stipe interior hollow, often stuffed; stipe flesh discolouring no; slenderness measure 9.0–145.9; smell occasionally odourless or fruit; taste often weakly bitter, occasionally none where recorded.

    Spore deposit colour: Not recorded.

    Exsiccata characters: Not recorded.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description
    Spores: shape amygdaloid, occasionally limoniform; colour in microscope often brown or brown pale; guttules often no, occasionally yes. papilla variable occasionally weak; Spore Code: O3 O4; (P2) P3; (D2) D3 (D4).

    Basidia: (17) 18–31 x 6–8 μm; ave. Q 3.1–3.8; spore arrangement 4 spored;

    Cheilocystidia: main shape lanceolate or ventricose, occasionally cylindrical, lageniform, pyriform, turbinate, balloon-shaped or clavate-lageniform or clavate-ventricose; special features observed often mucronate, occasionally rostrate, septa or sparse; cheilocystidia ratios: A/M = 0.56–0.97; A/B = 0.51–0.79; B/M = 0.72–1.81.

    Pleurocystidia: seen.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) not recorded; ixocutis hyphae width not recorded; ixocutis hyphae encrustation Not recorded; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis Not recorded.

    Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia but larger.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upSpore measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCheilocystidia measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upHabitat and distribution
    Hebeloma lactariolens's preferred habitat appears to be tropical woodland or woodland. Where only one possible associate was recorded, the most commonly recorded associate was Dipterocarpus (50.0%) but Castanopsis (50.0%) were also recorded. In these cases the most commonly recorded families were Dipterocarpaceae (50.0%) and Fagaceae (50.0%). We have additional records where Quercus (60.0%) and Pinus (40.0%) were recorded as possible associates, but in these cases a number of possible associates were mentioned. Overall the most commonly recorded families are Fagaceae (80.0%), Dipterocarpaceae (40.0%) and Pinaceae (40.0%) No growth habit has been recorded.

    According to our current data, the species is found on multiple continents with collections found in Tropical Asia (71.4%) and Temperate Asia (28.6%). On these continents, collections has been found in the WWF biomes The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. tropical & subtropical moist broadleaf forests (66.7%) and temperate broadleaf & mixed forests (33.3%), specifically including the ecoregions: Peninsular Malaysian rain forests (50.0%), Taiheiyo evergreen forests (33.3%) and Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests (16.7%). From collector information, it appears collections have been found in the 1.5 Forest – Subtropical/tropical dry (57.1%) and 1.4 Forest – Temperate (42.9%) IUCN habitats We map from the collector's description of the habitat to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s definition using a standardised set of rules. Please see this page for a full list of IUCN habitats..

    Within Tropical Asia all our records are from Malesia (Malaysia).

    Within Temperate Asia all our records are from Eastern Asia (Japan).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCommentary
    Clémençon and Hongo (1994) originally published this taxon as Alnicola lactariolens in the April issue of Mycoscience, apparently published on 1 Apr 1994; it appears Corner had effectively published the paper including the same taxon one day earlier, on 31 Mar 1994 as Psathyrella verrucispora. Both are morphologically clearly members of Hebeloma section Porphyrospora. The authors of both papers comment on the purple-brown (vinaceous) spore print, Corner (1994 [“1993”], p. 345) notes that the spore deposit color is fuscous purple, which is why he described his species in Psathyrella rather than Lacrymaria. Clémençon and Hongo (1994) commented on the spore deposit being a dark purple-brown color, an unknown feature of Alnicola. In Yang et al. (2005) Alnicola lactariolens was recombined into Anamika and later by Rees et al. (2013) into Hebeloma. The spore deposit color and its typical color change upon storage is the most striking feature of members of H. sect. Porphyrospora (Eberhardt et al. 2020). Good descriptions and further illustrations of H. lactariolens can be found in Corner (1994 [“1993”]) and Clémençon and Hongo (1994). This species is rather variable molecularly and in the ML reconstruction forms a clade together with H. youngii, an Australian species growing with Eucalyptus and Corymbia, to our knowledge only known from the type locality (Rees et al. 2013). Even though the monophyly of H. lactariolens in relation to H. youngii is not bootstrapsupported within this analysis, although it is in the BI results), the molecular distance, the occurrence on different continents, the different host associations, and morphologically, the cheilocystidia which for H. youngii are more consistently lanceolate and the number of full length lamellae which for H. youngii is in the range 50–60 while for H. lactariolens is always less than 40, clearly separate these taxa. The Malaysian and Singapore records are from lowland tropical forests while the type has been described from a subtropical habitat from Japan, thus hinting at a wide climatic and geographical range. Hebeloma lactariolens is apparently not uncommon in Malaysia. The FRIM database includes additional records of this species (not studied) from Hutan Simpan Semangkuk, Fraser’s Hill, Pahang and the Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, from hill respective lowland dipterocarp forests.
Geographic distribution
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upAdditional cited collections

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