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Taxonomy

Full name: Hebeloma sordidulum Sacc., Syll. Fung. 5: 806 (1887)
Genus: Hebeloma
Section: Denudata
Subsection: Clepsydroida

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upNomenclatural notes
    This is a replacement name for Agaricus sordidulus Peck (1885), nom. illegit., non Agaricus sordidulus J.F. Gmel. (1792).

Types: UNITED STATES: New York: Albany, Karner (approx. 42.7234°N, 73.8573°W, alt. approx. 100 m a.s.l.) on sandy soil, Oct. 1885, C.H. Peck (Holotype. herbarium acc. no. NYS-F-002840, HJB1000258).

Heterotypic synonyms:
  • Hebeloma arenosum Burds., Macfall & M.A. Albers [as "arenosa"], Mycologia 78 (5): 861 (1986)
  • Hebeloma atrifulvifolium Murrill, Lloydia 8: 285 (1946) ["1945"]
  • Hebeloma earlei Murrill, N. Amer. Fl. 10 (3): 219 (1917)
  • Hebeloma juneauense A.H. Sm., V.S. Evenson & Mitchel, The Veiled Species of Hebeloma in the Western United States: 159 (1983)
  • Hebeloma levyanum Murrill, Lloydia 8: 286 (1946) ["1945"]
  • Hebeloma lucidum Murrill, Lloydia 8: 286 (1946) ["1945"]
  • Hebeloma praeviscidum Murrill, Lloydia 8: 287 (1946) ["1945"]
  • Hebeloma subvatricosoides Murrill, Lloydia 8: 287 (1946) ["1945"]
  • Hebeloma weberi Murrill, Lloydia 7 (4): 321 (1945) ["1944"]
  • Hebeloma gomezii Singer, Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 77: 188 (1983)

Homotypic synonyms:
  • Agaricus sordidulus Peck, Ann. Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 38: 88 (1885)
  • Derminus sordidulus Henn. [as (Peck) and as "sordudulus"], Hymenomycetineae: 243 (1898)

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEtymology
    From sordidulus (Latin), meaning ‘soiled, shabby’.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upOriginal diagnosis
    Hebeloma sordidulum Peck 38 Rep. St. Mus. p. 88. - Pileo tenui, firmiusculo, convexo, udo viscido, brunneo-rufo vel cinnamomeo-brunneo, margine pallidiori vel albido, carne alba, Raphani odore; stipite bravi, aequali, farcto vel cavo, Ieniter fibrilloso, albo, apice pruinoso; sporis subellipticis, 12-13.5 x 6.5-7; lamellis latis, confertis, postice rotundatis, leniter adnexis, pallidis, demum brunneo-ochraceis. Hab. in terra arenosa in apricis Karner Americae borealis. - Totus fungus circ. 2.5 cm. altitudine metiens, pileus 2-3.5 cm. latus, stipes 3-5 mm. crassus.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEnglish translation
    Pileus thin, hardly firm, convex, viscid when moist, brown-red or cinnamon-brown, margin paler or whitish, context white, smell raphanoid; stipe short, equal, stuffed or fistulose, slightly fibrillose, white, with pruinose apex; spores subellipsoid, 12-13.5 x 6.5-7 ; lamellae broad, crowded, adnexed, narrowly adnate, pale, then brown-ochraceous.

Description

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upThresholds
Description of Hebeloma sordidulum based on 143 collections
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description
    Pileus: (16) 20–46 (80) mm diameter; shape often convex, occasionally umbonate, rarely applanate, broadly umbonate, strongly umbonate, umbilicate or weakly umbonate; characters rarely hygrophanous, remains of universal veil or spotting; margin characters often smooth, occasionally involute, rarely reflexed, appendiculate, crenulate, fibrillose or sulcate; viscosity tacky when moist; colour variation often two color, occasionally unicolour; colour at centre occasionally yellowish brown, rarely dark pinkish buff, cinnamon, ochraceous, greyish buff, clay-red, orange-brown or brick.

    Lamellae: attachment often emarginate, occasionally adnexed, rarely adnate or decurrent tooth; maximum depth 3–10 mm; number of complete lamellae 50–72; presence of tears usually absent, rarely visible with naked eye; white fimbriate edge usually weak, rarely present.

    Cortina presence: usually no, rarely yes.

    Stipe: (13) 15–54 (60) x 3–8 (15) {median} x 3–10 (14) {basal} mm; stipe Q 2.4–10.0; base shape often cylindrical, occasionally clavate or tapering, rarely bulbous or sand bulb; floccosity occasionally pruinose at apex, fibrillose or pruinose, rarely floccose, floccose at apex, velute or weakly floccose; rooting no; thick rhizoids at base absent;

    Context: Texture firm; stipe interior often hollow, occasionally stuffed or superior wick; stipe flesh discolouring often no, occasionally weak, rarely yes; slenderness measure 2.1–20.0; smell occasionally odourless or raphanoid, rarely weakly raphanoid, earthy or cocoa; taste occasionally weakly bitter, mild, raphanoid, strongly raphanoid or weakly raphanoid where recorded.

    Spore deposit colour: brownish olive.

    Exsiccata characters: Not recorded.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description
    Spores: shape amygdaloid, often limoniform, occasionally fusoid; colour in microscope usually yellow brown, rarely brown or yellow; guttules often no, occasionally yes. papilla often very strongly, occasionally yes; Spore Code: O2 O3; (P0) P1 (P2); D2 D3.

    Basidia: 21–36 (38) x (5) 6–9 (10) μm; ave. Q 2.9–4.4; spore arrangement 4 spored;

    Cheilocystidia: main shape usually clavate-lageniform or clavate-ventricose, occasionally clavate-stipitate, rarely capitate-stipitate, spathulate-stipitate, gently clavate or ventricose; special features observed occasionally median thickening, many collapsed in exsiccata or septa, rarely sparse, apical thickening, clamped septa, sinuate or yellow contents; cheilocystidia ratios: A/M = 1.35–2.24; A/B = 0.83–1.60; B/M = 1.35–2.07.

    Pleurocystidia: none seen.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) up to 190 μm; ixocutis hyphae width up to 7 μm; ixocutis hyphae encrustation variable; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis often thickly sausage-shaped, occasionally ellipsoid, cylindrical, ovate or thinly sausage-shaped up to 20 μm wide.

    Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia but larger, up to 95 μm.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upSpore measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCheilocystidia measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upHabitat and distribution
    Hebeloma sordidulum's preferred substrate appears to be grassy soil. Where only one possible associate was recorded, the most commonly recorded associate was Quercus (45.3%) but Carpinus (17.3%), Pinus (14.7%), Tilia (5.3%), Picea (4.0%), Fagus (2.7%), Betula (2.7%), Populus (2.7%), Salix (2.7%), Tsuga (1.3%) and Alnus (1.3%) were also recorded. In these cases the most commonly recorded families were Fagaceae (47.5%), Pinaceae (22.5%) and Betulaceae (20.0%). We have additional records where Arctostaphylos (2.6%) and Abies (1.7%) were recorded as possible associates, but in these cases a number of possible associates were mentioned. Overall the most commonly recorded families are Fagaceae (44.4%), Pinaceae (41.0%), Betulaceae (25.6%) and Salicaceae (14.5%) The growth habit of our collections was occasionally gregarious, scattered or solitary and rarely caespitose.

    According to our current collections, the species is predominantly found in Northern America (99.3%) but also found in Southern America (0.7%). On these continents, collections has been found in the WWF biomes The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. temperate broadleaf & mixed forests (43.6%), temperate conifer forests (24.3%) and temperate grasslands, savannas & shrublands (16.4%), specifically including the ecoregions: Southeast US conifer savannas (14.3%), Atlantic coastal pine barrens (12.1%) and Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests (10.7%). From collector information, it appears collections have been found in the 1.4 Forest – Temperate (48.4%) and 14.5 Urban Areas (35.5%) IUCN habitats We map from the collector's description of the habitat to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s definition using a standardised set of rules. Please see this page for a full list of IUCN habitats..

    Within Northern America we have records from Northeastern U.S.A. (New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, New Jersey, Massachusetts and New Hampshire), Southeastern U.S.A. (Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and West Virginia), Eastern Canada (Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario), South-central U.S.A. (Texas), North-central U.S.A. (Minnesota, Wisconsin and Missouri), Southwestern U.S.A. (California and Arizona), Subarctic America (Northwest Territories and Alaska), Western Canada (British Columbia) and Mexico (Mexico).

    Within Southern America all our records are from Central America (Costa Rica).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCommentary
    The cheilocystidia of H. sordidulum are 1301 mainly clavate-ventricose and greater than 40 μm long, together with the amygdaloid to limoniform spores, suggesting H. subsect. Clepsydroida, which is confirmed by an ITS sequence. Within this section, the presence of distinctly ornamented limoniform spores, often almost snout-like and greater than 50 full-length lamellae, characterize this taxon. The type of H. sordidulum and the sequences of the types of the species synonymized with H. sordidulum are monophyletic in relation to a clade including the most closely related species H. ammophilum, H. laetitiae and H. limbatum, but unsupported.
Geographic distribution
Phenology
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upAdditional cited collections

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