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Taxonomy

Full name: Hebeloma lindae Beker & U. Eberh., Hebeloma (Fr.) P. Kumm.: 457 (2016)
Genus: Hebeloma
Section: Scabrispora

Types: SPAIN: Balearic Islands, Es Trenc ses covetes, Mallorca (39.3534°N, 2.9771°E, alt. approx. 5 m a.s.l.) on calcareous, sandy soil in coniferous dune woodland under Pinus halepensis, 9 Dec. 2009, H.J. Beker, L. Davies (Holotype. herbarium acc. no. BR 5020184115555, HJB13411).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEtymology
    In honour of Linda Davies who has been supportive on numerous Hebeloma forays, helping us to understand and appreciate ecological interrelations.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upDiagnosis
    Hebeloma lindae with its large stature, its rooting and very floccose stipe without annulus, is macroscopically distinctive within the southern European conifer forests where it occurs. The stipe tendency to root indicates H. sect. Scabrispora. It is reminiscent of H. laterinum except that the stipe hardly discolours. Microscopically, the spores weakly ornamented and the perispore only weakly loosening in a few spores (O2; P0,P1), with average length less than 11 μm and average width greater than 5.7 μm and with Q value less than 1.8, together with the cheilocystidia with an average apical width of at most 5.2 µm and average basal width of at most 6 µm, are sufficient characters to separate H. lindae from other species within H. sect. Scabrispora.

Description

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upThresholds
Description of Hebeloma lindae based on 19 collections
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description
    Pileus: (24) 31–60 (69) mm diameter; shape usually convex, rarely broadly umbonate; characters rarely hygrophanous or rimulose; margin characters often smooth or involute, occasionally crenulate or sulcate, rarely fibrillose; viscosity tacky when moist; colour variation often unicolour, occasionally two color; colour at centre often dark pinkish buff, occasionally ochraceous or cinnamon.

    Lamellae: attachment emarginate, rarely adnate; maximum depth 4–9 mm; number of complete lamellae 66–110; presence of tears usually absent, rarely visible with x10 lens; white fimbriate edge often weak, occasionally absent or present.

    Cortina presence: usually no, rarely yes.

    Stipe: (24) 27–70 (90) x 7–13 (14) {median} x (7) 8–15 (21) {basal} mm; stipe Q 2.1–9.0; base shape often cylindrical, occasionally tapering, clavate or bulbous; floccosity often floccose, rarely fibrillose, floccose at apex or pruinose; rooting often yes, occasionally no, rarely weak; thick rhizoids at base absent;

    Context: Texture firm; stipe interior often hollow, occasionally stuffed; stipe flesh discolouring often weak, occasionally no; slenderness measure 1.4–10.2; smell often odourless, occasionally cocoa, rarely fruit; taste mild where recorded.

    Spore deposit colour: often brownish olive or umber.

    Exsiccata characters: occasionally dark.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description
    Spores: shape amygdaloid; colour in microscope often brown, occasionally yellow or yellow brown; guttules yes. papilla no; Spore Code: O2; P0 P1; D3.

    Basidia: 25–36 x 6–9 μm; ave. Q 3.8–4.5; spore arrangement 4 spored;

    Cheilocystidia: main shape cylindrical, rarely ventricose; special features observed often septa, occasionally clamped septa, mucronate, short, bifurcate, branching or geniculate, rarely irregular, rostrate or sinuate; cheilocystidia ratios: A/M = 0.94–1.29; A/B = 0.92–1.22; B/M = 0.97–1.16.

    Pleurocystidia: none seen.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) up to 150 μm; ixocutis hyphae width up to 5 μm; ixocutis hyphae encrustation yes; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis ellipsoid, isodiametric or thickly sausage-shaped, often cylindrical up to 20 μm wide.

    Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia but larger, up to 150 μm.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upSpore measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCheilocystidia measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upHabitat and distribution
    Hebeloma lindae's preferred habitat appears to be coniferous dune woodland with calcareous, sandy soil or basic soil. Where only one possible associate was recorded, the most commonly recorded associate was Pinus (91.7%) but Quercus (8.3%) were also recorded. In these cases the most commonly recorded families were Pinaceae (91.7%) and Fagaceae (8.3%). We have additional records where Cistus was recorded as a possible associate, but for these collections a number of possible associates were mentioned. Overall the most commonly recorded families are Pinaceae (86.7%), Fagaceae (26.7%) and Cistaceae (13.3%) The growth habit of our collections was occasionally scattered or solitary and rarely gregarious.

    According to our current collections, the species is found only in Europe. On the continent, collections have been found only in the mediterranean forests, woodlands & scrub WWF biome The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. (Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (42.1%), Northeast Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests (36.8%) and Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests (10.5%) ecoregions). From collector information, it appears collections have been found in the 1.4 Forest – Temperate (58.3%) and 13.3 Coastal Sand Dunes (25.0%) IUCN habitats We map from the collector's description of the habitat to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s definition using a standardised set of rules. Please see this page for a full list of IUCN habitats.. Within Europe we have records from the Southwest (Spain) and the Southeast (Italy and Greece). Specimens have been collected from 36.9°N to 42.4°N.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMolecular results
    Like its sister species H. laterinum, H. lindae is also phylogenetically distinct. It does form monophyletic clades in all single locus results and in the five-locus phylogeny and receives 90–100% bootstrap support. We are not aware of any published sequences likely to belong to this species from outside Europe.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCommentary
    In southern European conifer forests Hebeloma lindae is a macroscopically distinctive Hebeloma sp., with its large stature, its rooting stipe, without annulus, and its very floccose stipe. The stipe tendency to root indicates H. sect. Scabrispora. It is reminiscent of H. laterinum except that the stipe hardly discolours. We suspect that it has been confused with H. laterinum in the past. Microscopically, the spores weakly ornamented and with the perispore only weakly loosening in a few spores (O2; P0,P1) and with Q value less than 1.8, together with the cheilocystidia with average apical width at most 5.2 μm and average basal width at most 6 μm, are sufficient characters to separate this from other species within H. sect. Scabrispora. Hebeloma lindae does ometimes have veil remnants on the stipe; it is not clear whether these come from the universal veil or a partial veil.
Geographic distribution
Phenology
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upAdditional cited collections

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