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Taxonomy

Full name: Hebeloma neurophyllum G.F. Atk., Annls mycol. 7 (4): 370 (1909)
Genus: Hebeloma
Section: Velutipes

Types: UNITED STATES: New York: Coy Glen, Ithaca (approx. 42.4272°N, 76.5242°W, alt. approx. 125 m a.s.l.) on soil in woodland, 18 Oct. 1906, N. Coil, det: G. Atkinson (Holotype. herbarium acc. no. CUP-A-021514, HJB1000601; Isotype. herbarium acc. no. TENN-F-037531, HJB1000453; Isotype. herbarium acc. no. WTU-F-039596, HJB1000558).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEtymology
    From neuro– (Gk) and -phyllus (Gk) meaning stronly nerved leaves. Atkinson described the lamellae as 'connected by veins'.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upOriginal diagnosis
    Gregarium 7-8 cm altum, pileo 5-6 cm lato, stipite 5 -6 mm crasso: Pileo ochraceo-cremeo vel fulvo-ochraceo, leviter viscido. Lamellis 8 mm latis, pallide cinnamomeo-rufis, late sinuatis, adnexis, costatis. Basidiis 4-sporis. Sporis subfusoideis, 12-15 x 7-8 µ. Ad terram in silvis, Ithacae, N. Y. Stipite albo, fibroso-striato, cavo vel subfarcto.
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upEnglish translation
    Gregarious 7-8 cm high, pileus 5-6 cm broad, stipe 5-6 mm thick: pileus ochraceous-cream or fulvous-ochraceous, slightly viscid. Lamellae 8 mm broad, pale cinnamon-reddish, broadly sinuate, adnexed, intervenose. Basidia four-spored. Spores subfusoid, 12-15 x 7-8 μ. On the ground in woodland, N.Y. Stipe white, fibrous-striate, fistulose or almost stuffed.

Description

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upThresholds
Description of Hebeloma neurophyllum based on 57 collections
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description
    Pileus: (26) 30–55 (60) mm diameter; shape occasionally convex, umbonate or broadly umbonate, rarely weakly umbonate, applanate or strongly umbonate; characters rarely spotting; margin characters often smooth, occasionally involute or wavy; viscosity tacky when moist; colour variation usually unicolour, occasionally two color; colour at centre occasionally yellowish brown, ochraceous or cream, rarely fawn, cinnamon or clay-buff.

    Lamellae: attachment usually emarginate, occasionally adnexed; maximum depth 3–9 mm; number of complete lamellae 70–94; presence of tears usually absent, rarely visible with x10 lens or visible with naked eye; white fimbriate edge often present, occasionally weak.

    Cortina presence: no.

    Stipe: (25) 32–75 (80) x 5–13 (16) {median} x (7) 9–16 (18) {basal} mm; stipe Q 2.1–14.0; base shape often clavate or bulbous, occasionally cylindrical; floccosity often pruinose at apex, occasionally velute, fibrillose or floccose, rarely floccose at apex, weakly floccose or pruinose; rooting no; thick rhizoids at base variable;

    Context: Texture firm; stipe interior usually hollow, occasionally stuffed, rarely superior wick; stipe flesh discolouring often no, occasionally weak; slenderness measure 1.8–18.7; smell occasionally raphanoid or odourless, rarely fruit, strongly raphanoid, weakly raphanoid or earthy; taste mild where recorded.

    Spore deposit colour: often yellowish brown or brownish olive.

    Exsiccata characters: Not recorded.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description
    Spores: shape amygdaloid, usually limoniform; colour in microscope often brown or yellow brown, occasionally yellow; guttules often no, occasionally yes. papilla often very strongly, occasionally yes; Spore Code: O3 (O4); P1 P2; D3 (D4).

    Basidia: (20) 22–39 (43) x (6) 7–10 μm; ave. Q 2.7–3.8; spore arrangement 4 spored;

    Cheilocystidia: main shape usually ventricose or gently clavate, often cylindrical, occasionally clavate-lageniform or clavate-ventricose or lageniform; special features observed occasionally septa, geniculate or basal thickening, rarely many collapsed in exsiccata, bifurcate, plaques, clamped septa or yellow contents; cheilocystidia ratios: A/M = 1.01–1.46; A/B = 0.68–1.27; B/M = 1.16–1.58.

    Pleurocystidia: none seen.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) up to 90 μm; ixocutis hyphae width up to 6 μm; ixocutis hyphae encrustation yes; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis often cylindrical, thickly sausage-shaped, ellipsoid or isodiametric up to 16 μm wide.

    Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia but larger, up to 115 μm.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upSpore measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCheilocystidia measurements
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upHabitat and distribution
    Where only one possible associate was recorded, the most commonly recorded associate was Quercus (26.7%) but Picea (26.7%), Populus (20.0%), Tilia (13.3%) and Salix (13.3%) were also recorded. In these cases the most commonly recorded families were Salicaceae (36.8%), Pinaceae (26.3%), Fagaceae (21.1%), Malvaceae (10.5%) and Betulaceae (5.3%). We have additional records where Betula (35.1%), Pinus (16.2%), Dryas (10.8%), Alnus (8.1%), Arctostaphylos (5.4%) and Polygonum (2.7%) were recorded as possible associates, but in these cases a number of possible associates were mentioned. Overall the most commonly recorded families are Salicaceae (64.9%), Pinaceae (48.6%), Betulaceae (35.1%), Fagaceae (16.2%), Rosaceae (10.8%), Malvaceae (5.4%) and Ericaceae (5.4%) The growth habit of our collections was occasionally gregarious, scattered or solitary.

    According to our current collections, the species is found only in Northern America. On the continent, collections has been found in the WWF biomes The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. boreal forests/taiga (38.9%), temperate conifer forests (18.5%), temperate broadleaf & mixed forests (14.8%) and tundra (14.8%), specifically including the ecoregions: Northern Canadian Shield taiga (16.7%) and Watson Highlands taiga (13.0%). From collector information, it appears collections have been found in the 1.1 Forest – Boreal (29.5%), 14.5 Urban Areas (25.0%) and 1.4 Forest – Temperate (20.5%) IUCN habitats We map from the collector's description of the habitat to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s definition using a standardised set of rules. Please see this page for a full list of IUCN habitats.. Within Northern America we have records from Subarctic America (Northwest Territories, Alaska and Yukon), North-central U.S.A. (Wisconsin and Minnesota), Northwestern U.S.A. (Colorado and Washington), Southeastern U.S.A. (Florida), Southwestern U.S.A. (Arizona), Northeastern U.S.A. (New York), South-central U.S.A. (Texas), Western Canada (Alberta) and Mexico (Mexico).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCommentary
    With the mixture of gently clavate and ventricose cystidia alongside the strongly dextrinoid basidiospores, this species belongs within Hebeloma sect. Velutipes. Within this section the combination of spores with minimum average width 7.5 μm and a distinctly loosening perispore in at least some spores, together with the absence of pleurocystidia, defines this species. The collection of H. neurophyllum from Mexico, gathered at El Ranchito in Chihuahua, matches well with other collections of this species. We are not aware of any synonyms for this species. In terms of ITS, the most similar to H. neurophyllum were H. celatum, H. erebium and H. quercetorum, the ITS sequences of which were around 99% similar (99.2– 98.6%) to those of H. neurophyllum. Hebeloma neurophyllum appears to correspond to UNITE SH1733487.08FU (99%). Intriguingly, this species hypothesis includes a number of soil sample sequences from Estonia, suggesting that either H. neurophyllum occurs in Europe, too, or that species known to occur in Europe also contain ITS copies corresponding to H. neurophyllum below the detection limit of Sanger sequencing.
Geographic distribution
Phenology
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upAdditional cited collections

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