Collection 1000108 (herbarium acc. no. LY BR64-38) is the holotype of Hebeloma danicum.


  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upCollecting details

    Collection 1000108 was collected by G. Bruchet on 19th October 1964 in near Courmangoux, Ain, FRANCE (approx. 46.333°N, 5.367°E, altitude approximately 400 m above sea level - Google maps). The ectomycorrhizal family Betulaceae (genus Carpinus) was present.

    The surrounding habitat was described as not recorded with a substrate of soil.

    According to the GPS data the collection was in the Western European broadleaf forests WWF ecoregion The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have divided the world into 867 terrestrial ecoregions. The ecoregion here is estimated by mapping from the GPS coordinates of the collection using data made available by Dinerstein et al (2017). Use this webtool to explore the ecoregions visually or see a full list of current ecoregions on Wikipedia. (biome: Temperate Broadleaf & Mixed Forests) and Koppen climate code Cfb (Temperate, no dry season, warm summer).

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMacroscopic description

    Cortina present: yes.

    Pileus: 41–45 mm diameter; shape convex, umbonate strongly; margin characters not recorded; viscosity tacky when moist; spotting no; hygrophanous no; colour variation two-colour; with colour at centre not recorded; and colour at margin not recorded; with remains of universal veil yes.

    Lamellae: attachment adnate, emarginate; maximum depth not recorded; number of complete lamellae 60; tears absent; white fimbriate edge weak.

    Stipe: 90–115 x 5 {median} x 5 {basal} mm; stipe Q 18.0–23.0; base cylindrical; floccosity fibrillose, floccose at apex; rooting yes; mycelial chords not recorded.

    Context: texture firm; stipe interior hollow, stuffed; stipe flesh discolouring from base yes; slenderness measure 49.1; smell raphanoid; taste bitter weakly, raphanoid.

    Spore deposit colour: analysis not yet complete.

    Exsiccata: normal.

  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upMicroscopic description

    Spores: shape amygdaloid; colour through microscope yellow brown; guttulate no; papillate no; Spore Code: O3; P2; D3.

    Basidia: 21.2–29.2 x 5.5–7.2 μm; ave. Q = 4.1; basidia spore nature not recorded.

    Cheilocystidia: main shape cylindrical; special features not recorded; Cheilocystidia Ratios: A/M = 1.15; A/B = 1.10; B/M = 1.08.

    Pleurocystidia: no.

    Ixocutis: epicutis thickness (measured from exsiccata) 140 μm; ixocutis maximum hyphae width 4 μm; ixocutis hyphae encrustation yes; shape of trama elements beneath subcutis ellipsoid, thickly sausage-shaped up to 18 μm wide.

    Caulocystidia: caulocystidia maximum length 80 μm.

    Spore(min) 5%-95% (max)meanmedianS.D.
    Length (µm)(8.4) 8.5–10.5 (11.0)
    Width (µm)(4.6) 4.8–5.7 (6.2)
    Q(1.46) 1.64–1.98 (2.07)1.801.810.11

    Cheilocystidium (µm)(min) 5%-95% (max)meanmedianS.D.
    Length(14) 16–31 (33)22224.86
    Apex Width(3.6) 3.7–5.8 (6.1)
    Median Width(2.2) 2.9–5.4 (5.6)
    Basal Width(3.2) 3.3–6.4 (7.1)
  • arrow_drop_downarrow_drop_upTemperature calculation
    Max tempMin tempPrecipitation
    Annualised average (1964)14.83 °C5.93 °C65.21 mm
    Collection month (10/1964)13.31 °C5.77 °C78.02 mm
    Max month (1964)27.83 °C14.22 °C126.30 mm

Compare this collection to its species

This section compares data for this collection against its true species and also against the most likely species as determined by our identifier. More often than not these will be the same species, but where this is not the case, the data may be used to help explain why the identifier got it wrong.

Image gallery

Detailed statistics

Spore measurementsMy valueSpecies mean valuePosition
Count 73.0 60.16 4th/19
Average length 9.5 9.66 12th–15th/19
Average width 5.3 5.56 16th/19
Standard deviation of length 0.57 0.55 6th/19
Standard deviation of width 0.28 0.29 10th–11th/19
Median length 9.4 9.68 15th–16th/19
Median width 5.2 5.56 16th–17th/19
Minimum length 8.4 8.38 11th–12th/19
Minimum width 4.6 4.84 15th–16th/19
Low length 8.5 8.78 13th–15th/19
Low width 4.8 5.07 15th–17th/19
High length 10.5 10.53 13th/19
High width 5.7 5.99 16th/19
Max length 11.0 10.92 6th/19
Max width 6.2 6.22 8th–11th/19
Spore featureValueCommonalities
Ornamentation O3 100% of collections
Perispore loosening P2 100% of collections
Dextrinoidity D3 94% of collections